Other examples of offline networks are alumni networks from your schools, colleges, previous work places and similar locations. Many of these are now online, though very few are doing much beyond basic database creation and sharing. Just this year one of my graduate schools has started systematically co-creating executive education programs with the help of its alumni network - even though the possibility has existed in technological capability for almost a decade. Some of the more well known formal networks are organizations such as the Freemasons, the Rotarians and other similar clubs including the chambers of commerce. Each of these was created for a different mission, and most still adhere to their original formal charters. Many of these formal networks are moving online - at least for the purpose of database creation and sharing. Contrary to some beliefs, most of them are rather benign associations that create a forum for gathering and sharing interests. Many networks of professionals with similar interests exist online either at LinkedIn or through professional bodies where the only condition of entry is your interest in the topic of discussion. One such offline network where I served on the Global Advisory Board broadened its membership by tens of thousands during the five years I was on the board. The professional courses, seminars, forums and lecture series run by the organization contributed significantly to the body of knowledge on the subject. At the same time numerous individuals found suitable jobs and professional progression advancement through the network. Another online informal network that I have created on a social networking website has grown to more than 6,500 members globally and business opportunities worth more than $650 million are offered on it every year now. It is difficult to estimate the actual trade that results from the network because of the fact that the trade is mostly carried out offline. This network is growing rapidly, and at this moment I am grappling with the question of how to keep its informal nature and yet enhance its usefulness and relevance to the participants of the network. An interesting phenomenon that is just emerging is online currencies being traded between the informal networks. These go far beyond online payment and clearance systems such as PayPal and serve as crypto-currency. So far these crypto-currency networks such as Bitcoin and its clones are operating near the legal fringes of most economies. Further developments are being watched with interest by the central banks, supra-national bodies and the political economists. We will draw the line here for our discussion of semi-underground networks because one can go too far in researching and describing these and stray into illegal or unethical networks quite unknowingly.In conclusion, I would like to point out that the breadth, as well as the depth of a network, varies according to the need and purpose of the network itself. Most networks - whether online or offline, formal or informal, social or business - are evolving slowly to meet the needs of the participants, and continue to make themselves more useful by adding depth of interaction and/or breadth of coverage. We will focus primarily on the Business Networks, their efficacy - efficiency and effectiveness and their utility to the participants. More specifically, we will demonstrate to the reader how the business leaders of the future are busily building networks that will underpin their business aspirations. Have you tried listing your organisation in a business directory - (I've heard it ticks a lot of marketing boxes)?